At the moment, there are various types of vaccines in Kenya. Therefore, today we are going to look at the different types of vaccines in Kenya. We will discuss in details about each vaccine and the disease it causes.
Types of Vaccines in Kenya
Below we will discuss the various types of vaccines in Kenya.
Tuberculosis Vaccine (BCG)
Tuberculin mycobacterium is the virus that causes Tuberculosis and its highly contagious. When an infected person sneezes, coughs or spits, the mycobacterium gets released into the air and can be transferred to a healthy person. At the moment, Tuberculosis is the third topmost killer after Pneumonia and Accidents. Tuberculosis cuts across all age groups.
The BCG vaccine has been in existence for over 40 years. Additionally, this vaccine is known to reduce the severity of Tuberculosis meningitis and Military Tuberculosis among children. How this vaccine is administered is at birth and also at 59 months old. The injection is made on the topmost part of the arm. Most of us have a scar on this part as an indication that it was administered. This is an essential vaccine in Kenya.
2. Polio (Poliomyelitis) Vaccine in Kenya
Polio is a viral disease which invades the nervous system and can cause paralysis within a period of a few hours. It’s worth to note that there are about three strains of Polio. There is strain 1, 2 and 3 of the Polio vaccine in Kenya.
Moreover, this virus mostly infects kids below the age of 5 years. It is important to note that this virus is quickly spread primarily in households with poor sanitation. The transmission is through the faecal-oral route.
It’s also important to note that babies receive four doses of this vaccine before they hit year one. The first dose can be administered immediately after birth or within two weeks of delivery. The other doses are however spread among week 6, 10 and, 14.
3. Pertussis/ whooping cough Vaccine
This is a very contagious disease that affects the respiratory tract. Infants receive this vaccine when administered in three doses at week 6, 10, and, 14.
Never the less, it is essential to understand that pertussis infection can occur at any age even though the vaccine in Kenya is only given to babies.
4. Tetanus/ lockjaw Vaccine
Bacillus clostridium tetani found in human faeces, soil, and animals is the bacteria that causes Tetanus. Note that this bacterium enters the body through an open wound.
Over the past decade, deaths caused by Tetanus have been on the decline. A pregnant woman should receive this vaccine according to the 5-T.T. schedule. Once the baby is born, they should get this vaccine.
5. Hepatitis B vaccine
In addition to the other vaccines, Hepatitis B is also another vaccine. Hepatitis B causes a viral infection of the Liver. In Kenya, this disease affects every one person in a group of 3 people. In Kenya, infants receive three doses of vaccines at age 6, 10 and 14 weeks.
However, adults may get this disease from sexual activity and using contaminated blood products.
Haemophilus Influenza Type B Vaccine
This bacterium causes pneumonia, however, sometimes it might result in meningitis. Even though this disease can affect all age groups, it is predominant in children less than five years of age.
As preventive care, infants receive three doses of this vaccine within four weeks. That is at week 6, 10 and 14 weeks. All the infants in Kenya have to receive this vaccine.
6. Measles Vaccine
One can get measles through getting into contact with the nasal and throat secretions of a sick person. According to the World Health Organization, this disease is highly infectious.
Moreover, in Kenya, measles occurs mostly in children below the age of one year. Therefore resulting in infants receiving this vaccine on their 9th month. The Measles vaccine is available in a monovalent combination with rubella and mumps vaccine.
The ministry of health recommends that after administering the monovalent vaccine in Kenya at nine months of age, another immunisation should be conducted at 15 months.
Yellow Fever Vaccine
Yellow Mosquito’s cause of Yellow fever to healthy individuals. It’s worth to note that this vaccine should not be administered to children below the age of 6 months and those infected by HIV. Most major government and private hospitals offer this vaccine in Kenya.
Kenya is a high-risk country for yellow fever. Therefore anyone leaving the country has to receive a yellow fever vaccination and get a certificate.
Pneumococcus is the virus causing Pneumococcal, and it has more than 91 serotypes. In Kenya, this is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality.
Infants in Kenya receive this vaccine in three doses at age 6, 10 and 14 weeks.
Mumps is the enlargement of two parotid glands on both sides of the face. This disease is air-borne, and it results in fever and severe headaches. Babies at the age of 9 months receive this vaccine as a monovalent combination for rubella, mumps, and measles. This vaccine is a must to receive in Kenya.
Hepatitis A vaccine
This is a disease of the Liver. Infants receive this vaccine in three doses at the age of 0, 1 and 6 months.
Varicella virus is the one that majorly chickenpox. OneChickenpoxChickenpox by touching the blisters of an infected person. If the person receiving this vaccine is about 13 years of age, then they receive only a single dose.
Meningococcus is the bacterium that causes meningitis, and it has a high mortality rate if untreated. As a preventive mechanism, kids above two years of age receive this vaccine.
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) Vaccine
HPV is the virus responsible for causing cervical cancer. HPV mostly passes from one person to another through sexual behaviour.
The HPV vaccine is in two types:
- The quadrivalent vaccine for women and girls between the age of 26 years to 9 years of age.
- Bivalent HPV vaccine which is for girls and women aged between 10years -45 years.
In Conclusion, few vaccines are still in development and whose invention would result in saving many lives. For instance, we have:
- Malaria Vaccine – to induce complete protection against malaria
- HIV Vaccine – protect those who receive it against contracting HIV